Effect of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) in culture. (a) Monolayer culture. Cells show typical fibroblast-like morphology in control culture × 180. (b) Monolayer culture. In the presence of TGFβ, morphology changes to a more rounded phenotype × 155. (c) 3D culture. In the absence of TGFβ, extracellular matrix contains modest amounts of proteoglycans (indicated by pink staining with toluidine blue) × 400. (d) 3D culture. Cells produce abundant proteoglycan when cultured with TGFβ × 400. (e) Quantitative analysis of proteoglycan shows significantly greater formation in the presence of TGFβ. * p < 0.05.
Tapp et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2008 10:R89 doi:10.1186/ar2473