Identification of TH-17 cells in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial fluid (SF), RA peripheral blood (PB) and normal PB. (a, b) Normal PB, (c, d) RA PB or (e, f) RA SF mononuclear cells treated with control medium (a, c, e) or IL-23 (20 ng/ml) for 18 hours, followed by the addition of PMA (50 ng/ml) plus ionomycin (1 μg/ml) for four hours (b, d, f), before immunostaining. The values are presented as mean ± SE of % CD4+IL-17+ cells within the total CD4 population.
Shahrara et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2008 10:R93 doi:10.1186/ar2477