Figure 1.

Molecular and cellular mechanisms that perpetuate osteoarthritis. BMP, bone morphogenetic protein; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; NO, nitric oxide; PA, plasminogen activator; PG, prostaglandin; TGF, transforming growth factor; TIMP, tissue inhibitor of MMP; TNF, tumor necrosis factor. Adapted from Abramson and coworkers [79].

Abramson and Attur Arthritis Research & Therapy 2009 11:227   doi:10.1186/ar2655
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