Additional file 13.
Effect estimates (standardised mean differences) of water versus land-based aerobic exercise on pain and depressed mood post treatment. Forest plots show standardised mean differences (effect sizes) from the random effects model (inverse variance method). A negative effect indicates that the endpoint score of the outcome in the water-based exercise groups is lower than in the land-based exercise group in the study. The pooled (all studies together) effect size is weighted by the inverse variance of each study. IV, inverse variance (method); SD, standard deviation; Std. mean difference, standardised mean differences; random, random effects model; SD, standard deviation; total, number of patients; weight, relative weight (%) of the study in the calculation.
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Häuser et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2010 12:R79 doi:10.1186/ar3002