Table 1

Renal functions and related clinical or laboratory parameters


Clinical or laboratory parameter


Serum levels of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid

Filtration barrier

Proteinuria as determined by dipstick test and/or by urinary protein/creatinine ratio, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio

Hematuria as determined by dipstick test and/or microscopy

Sodium balance

Blood pressure and edema to be evaluated by clinical examination

Water balance

Serum sodium concentration, serum osmolarity

Acid-base status

Serum bicarbonate (and chloride) concentration

Renal hormones

Erythropoietin: hemoglobin level 1,25-(OH)2 vitamin D: serum calcium/phosphorus Concentrations, iPTH

iPTH, intact parathyroid hormone.

Anders and Vielhauer Arthritis Research & Therapy 2011 13:222   doi:10.1186/ar3256