Table 2

Renal toxicities of drugs commonly used by rheumatologists

Renal manifestation


Acute renal failure

NSAIDs, cyclosporine overdose, biphosphonates

Chronic renal failure

NSAIDs, cyclosporine overdose

Proteinuria/nephrotic syndrome

NSAIDs, gold

Sodium retention/edema/hypertension


Arterial hypertension

Leflunomide, cyclosporine

NSAID, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Anders and Vielhauer Arthritis Research & Therapy 2011 13:222   doi:10.1186/ar3256