Table 1

Main clinical, serological, histological, genetic characteristics of focal sialoadenitis


Primary Sjögren's syndrome

Hepatitis C virus

HIV-related DILS

Sicca symptoms




Parotid swelling

Moderate to severe

Mild to moderate

Moderate to severe

Extra-glandular manifestations

Mainly pulmonary, gastrointestinal, renal, and neurologic involvement

Mainly gastrointestinal and musculo-skeletal involvement

Mainly musculoskeletal, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, and neurologic involvement

Infiltrating lymphocytic phenotype

CD4+ T cells

CD4+ T cells

CD8+ T cells


High-frequency RF, ANA, anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB

High frequency of RF Very low frequency of ANA, anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB

Low-frequency RF, ANA

HLA association

B8, DR2 and DR3


B45, B49, B50, DR11(DR5), and DRw6

Main characteristics of focal sialoadenitis in primary Sjögren's syndrome, hepatitis C virus-infected patients and HIV-infected patients developing diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS). ANA: antinuclear antibodies; RF, rheumatoid factor. Modified from Basu and colleagues [59].

Vitali Arthritis Research & Therapy 2011 13:233   doi:10.1186/ar3361