A schematic representation of the formation of a NET (neutrophil extracellular trap) and its killing of a bacterium. With activation, the nuclear membrane of a neutrophil breaks down, allowing mixing of the nuclear contents with cytoplasmic proteins to form a NET. The resulting NET leaves the cell to serve as an extracellular mesh to trap bacteria, which are induced to die by the anti-bacterial action of histones and bacteriocidal cytoplasmic proteins in the NET. The Latin cross signifies cell death of a bacterium. TLR, Toll-like receptor.
Pisetsky Arthritis Research & Therapy 2011 13:131 doi:10.1186/ar3477