Table 2

Potential indicators of patellofemoral and tibiofemoral joint OA considered in the current study




Risk factors

Age; sex

1st degree relative with arthritis; previous menisectomy; contralateral TKR

In-clinic face-to-face interview

Body mass index

In-clinic measurement

Clinical hand OA

In-clinic self-complete questionnaire + physical examination

Clinical history/symptoms

Time since problem onset; gradual onset; problem started following injury; bilateral knee pain; incident pain; duration of morning stiffness; inactivity gelling; reported swelling in past month; reported dramatic swelling ever; locking; giving way

In-clinic face-to-face interview

Pain days in last six months‡; pain, stiffness, aching on most days in the past month; current pain intensity (0 to 10 NRS)‡; significant interference with daily activities in last six months‡;

In-clinic self-complete questionnaire

Whole leg pain; pain walking on a flat surface†; stiffness on waking†; difficulty descending stairs†

Prior postal self-complete questionnaire¶

Physical signs

Intercondylar gap in standing; intermalleolar gap in standing; PFJ glide/compression test; presence and severity of palpable knee effusion; fixed flexion deformity; bony enlargement; mediolateral instability; isometric knee extensor strength; isometric knee flexor strength; coarse crepitus; knee flexion ROM; TF joint line tenderness; multiple local tender points§; timed single-leg standing balance

In-clinic physical examination

‡ Items from Chronic Pain Grade; † Items from Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) LK3.0, dichotomised at moderate or worse; § four or more from medial femoral condyle, medial TF joint line, lateral femoral condyle, lateral TF joint line, prepatellar, infrapatellar, pes anserinus Completed a median of 53 days prior to research assessment clinic attendance

NRS, numerical rating scale; OA, osteoarthritis; PFJ, patellofemoral joint; ROM, range of movement; TF, tibiofemoral; TKR, total knee replacement

Peat et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R63   doi:10.1186/ar3779

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