A complete Freund's adjuvant model of inflammatory arthritis induces significant and long-term pain behaviors. The spontaneous time spent guarding (A), and the number of spontaneous flinches (C) in CFA-treated mice were significantly greater than those in vehicle-treated mice at 28 days after initial CFA injection. In addition, limb use (B) and dynamic weight bearing of the ipsilateral hindlimb (D) declined significantly after the initial CFA injection and continued to decline through the 24-day experimental period. Bars represent the mean of at least five mice ± SEM. *P < 0.05 versus mice that received intraarticular injections of saline.
Jimenez-Andrade and Mantyh Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R101 doi:10.1186/ar3826