Table 1

Summary of growth factors contained in platelet-rich plasma [64,77,78]

Growth factor


Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)

Stimulates undifferentiated mesenchymal cell proliferation

Regulates endothelial, fibroblastic, and osteoblastic mitogenesis

Regulates collagen synthesis and collagenase secretion

Regulates mitogenic effects of other growth factors

Stimulates endothelial chemotaxis and angiogenesis

Inhibits macrophage and lymphocyte proliferation

Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)

Promotes growth and differentiation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts

Mitogenetic for mesenchymal cells, chondrocytes, and osteoblasts

Platelet-derived growth factor a and b (PDGF)

Mitogenetic for mesenchymal cells and osteoblasts

Stimulates chemotaxis and mitogenesis in fibroblast, glial, or smooth muscle cells

Regulates collagenase secretion and collagen synthesis

Stimulates macrophage and neutrophil chemotaxis

Epidermal growth factor (EGF)

Stimulates endothelial chemotaxis or angiogenesis

Regulates collagenase secretion

Stimulates epithelial or mesenchymal mitogenesis

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)

Increases angiogenesis and vessel permeability

Stimulates mitogenesis for endothelial cells

Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF)

Promotes angiogenesis

Cartilage regeneration

Fibrosis and platelet adhesion

Insulin like growth factor (ILGF 1 and 2)

Chemotactic for fibroblasts and stimulates protein synthesis

Enhances bone formation

Platelet factor 4 (PF-4)

Stimulate the initial influx of neutrophils into wounds

Chemo-attractant for fibroblasts

Interleukin 8 (IL-8)

Pro-inflammatory mediator

Recruitment of inflammatory cells

Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF)

Promote endothelial cell growth, migration, adhesion and survival


Dhillon et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:219   doi:10.1186/ar3914