Mouse MSC characteristics. Representative images of BALB/c MSCs showing A, fibroblastic morphology of MSCs, B, adipogenesis with fat vacuoles stained with Oil Red O and C, osteogenesis with Alizarin Red staining (scale 500 μm). D, proteoglycan (GAG) per 105 cell pellet demonstrating chondrogenic potential in the presence of TGFβ3 and BMP2. Analysis was performed in triplicate pellets; * P <0.05 (Mann Whitney U testing). E, histological confirmation of chondrogenesis by BALB/c MSC using toluidine blue staining (scale 200μm). F, flow cytometric analysis of BALB/c, FVB and DBA/1 MSCs showing them to be positive for CD73 and CD105, and negative for CD45. G, H, I, calcium deposition demonstrating osteogenesis; *P <0.05, **P <0.001 (unpaired T test). Data represents mean ± standard deviation of triplicate cultures. BMP, bone morphogenetic protein; GAG, glycosaminoglycan; MSC, mesenchymal stem cells; TGFβ, transforming growth factor beta.
Sullivan et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R167 doi:10.1186/ar3916