Time course of gene expression assessed by semiquantitative RT-PCR of mesenchymal stem cell pellet cultures. Pellets transduced with Ad.GFP (control), Ad.IHH alone (IHH), or Ad.IHH in combination with Ad.TGF-β1 (IHH + TGF-β1) or BMP-2 (IHH + BMP-2) were analysed over time. (a) Expressions for the chondrogenic mRNAs collagen (COL) type II, aggrecan core protein, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), fibromodulin, or sex determining region Y-box 9 (SOX9) at days 3, 7, 14, or 21 of culture are shown, respectively. (b) Expressions of mRNAs associated with chondrogenic hypertrophy and osteogenesis of COL type I, COL type X, alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, or osteocalcin at days 3, 7, 14, or 21 of culture are shown, respectively. Expressions of elongation factor-1α served as the housekeeping gene and internal control. Primer details are shown in Table 1. Ad., adenoviral vector; BMP, bone morphogenetic protein; IHH, Indian hedgehog; TGF-β, transforming growth factor beta.
Steinert et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R168 doi:10.1186/ar3921