Sulforaphane (SFN) induces apoptosis in TNF-α pre-treated 'transformed' synoviocytes. HSE wild-type cells were either pre-treated (3 h) with 10 ng/mL TNF-α and then stimulated for a further 6 h with 6.25 μM SFN or only stimulated for 6 h with 6.25 μM SFN without TNF-α pre-treatment and WST (A), CytoTox-Glo™ (B) and Caspase-Glo™ 3/7 (C) assays were performed as recommended by the manufacturers. All experiments were performed with n = 8. Graphs represent mean + SEM. Statistical significances are indicated as *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001. (One-way ANOVA with Bonferroni multiple comparison post hoc test, GraphPad Prism 5 software; GraphPad Software, La Jolla, CA, USA.).
Fragoulis et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R220 doi:10.1186/ar4059