BT and CS inhibited the IL-32-induced THP-1 differentiation. THP-1 cells (3 × 105) were treated with BT (100 μg/ml) or CS (1 μg/ml) for 2 h and then stimulated with IL-32 (0.1 μg/ml) for 6 days in the absence of FBS. (A) Real-time PCR of macrophage markers, CD11b and CD14 mRNA after simulation of THP-1 cells. (B) CD14 and caspase-1 were determined by Western blot analysis. (C) CD11b (red) and CD14 (green) were examined with confocal laser-scanning microscope. (D) The mRNA expressions of TSLP were measured by the real-time PCR. Blank, unstimulated cells. *P < 0.05; significantly different from the unstimulated cells' value, **P < 0.05; significantly different from the IL-32-stimulated cells' value. (Original magnification × 600). BT, BaekJeol-Tang; CS, chondroitin sulfate; FBS, fetal bovine serum; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; TSLP, thymic stromal lymphopoietin.
Jeong et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2012 14:R259 doi:10.1186/ar4104