Table 1

Types of kidney disease in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

Immune complex glomerulonephritis ('lupus nephritis')

Immune complex tubulointersitial nephritis

Minimal change nephrotic syndrome

Thrombotic microangiopathy

Infectious ascending tubulointerstitial disease

Opportunistic renal infections

Renal drug-induced toxicity

Renal injury due to concomitant disease (for example, hypertension and diabetes mellitus)


Anders and Weening Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15:108   doi:10.1186/ar4166