Table 1

Tests used to define neurocognitive dysfunction





Working memory

Digit span

Age-appropriate Wechsler intelligence scale [32,33]

Ability to repeat back in order, or in a re-sequenced order, increasingly difficult strings of numbers

Letter-number sequencing

Age-appropriate Wechsler intelligence scale [32,33]

Ability to mentally re-sequence a series of letters and numbers before repeating them back

Psychomotor speed


Age-appropriate Wechsler intelligence scale [32,33]

Test-takers decode and transcribe a series of symbols as quickly as possible

Symbol search

Age-appropriate Wechsler intelligence scale [32,33]

Score reflects speed and accuracy of test-takers' visual searches for matches in rows of symbols


Hit reaction time standard error

Conners' continuous performance test II [34]

On a 15-minute-long boring task, the variability in reaction time to specific letters flashing on screen

Inhibition vs. color naming score

Delis-Kaplan executive functioning system [35]

Relative ability to focus on the color of the ink in which a conflicting color word is printed (for example, 'blue' written in red ink).

Visuoconstructional abilities

Block design

Wechsler abbreviated scales of intelligence [36]

Ability to efficiently reproduce colored line drawings using blocks with sides that have varying patterns

Block counting

Kaufman assessment battery for children [37,38]

Ability to mentally represent the volume of a three-dimensional block construction printed in two-dimensional space

DiFrancesco et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15:R40   doi:10.1186/ar4197

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