CD1c+ myeloid dendritic cells from synovial fluid of rheumatoid arthritis patients produce increased chemokine levels but equal amounts of T cell-differentiating cytokines compared with those from peripheral blood. (A) Representative dot plot of isolated CD1c-expressing myeloid dendritic cells (mDCs) from peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid (SF) of a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patient. (B) Representative dot plots of isotype (left), CD1c and CD14 expression on CD19– mononuclear cells (middle) and on isolated mDCs (right plot) from PB and SF. A small percentage of mDCs from PB and SF (n = 6, paired samples) expresses CD14 (bar graph). (C) PB mDCs and SF mDCs (n = 6) produced comparable levels of T-helper type (Th)-1, Th17 and Th2-differentiating cytokines interleukin (IL)-12, IL-23, IL-33. (D) Production of several chemokines by SF mDCs was significantly upregulated and macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) significantly downregulated as compared with PB mDCs. Apart from the T cell-differentiating cytokines, only inflammatory mediators that showed P ≤0.10 are shown. Statistically significant differences of *P <0.05 and **P <0.01. IP-10, interferon-gamma inducible protein-10; MIG, monokine induced by interferon-gamma; TARC, thymus and activation-regulated chemokine.
Moret et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15:R155 doi:10.1186/ar4338