Additional file 1.

Primary RA fibroblasts isolation and culture. Primary RA fibroblasts (RA-FLS) were isolated by enzymatic digestion of synovial tissues obtained from RA patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery. In general, synovial tissue was minced and digested with 1% collagenase II at 37°C for 4 h. RA-FLS were cultured in DMEM medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 100 U/ml penicillin and 100 μg/ml streptomycin at 37°C in a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2 in air. This study was approved by the Ethical Committee of the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, and informed consent was obtained from all patients.

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Xu et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15:R170   doi:10.1186/ar4357