Percentage GAG release throughout the time course with IL-1β stimulation and carprofen treatment. The following treatments were applied: untreated control, IL-1β (10 ng/ml), carprofen (100 μg/ml) + IL-1β (10 ng/ml), or carprofen (100 μg/ml). The percentage GAG release was measured after 0 to 6 days and 6 to 12 days of incubation. The day 6 GAG-release data confirmed that carprofen slows IL-1β-stimulated GAG release. The GAG-release measurements for the day 12 time point would have been influenced by GAG loss during the earlier culture period. Carprofen + IL-1β samples showed higher GAG release at day 12 than did IL-1β alone, because of the high loses that had already occurred during days 0 to 6. Explant culture time courses were completed by using tissues from three separate animals, with three treatment replicates for each experiment. **P < 0. 01; ***P < 0. 001. Error bars indicate standard deviation.
Williams et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15:R223 doi:10.1186/ar4424