Rate of gastroduodenal complications with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs compared with control. Rate of gastroduodenal complications (events) with NSAIDs (includes aspirin) compared with control (no NSAID, or placebo, or NSAID + mucosal protection therapy) in 15 randomised controlled trials (RCTs; squares) and three cohort studies (circles). White symbols, uncomplicated peptic, gastric or duodenal ulcer; grey symbols, ulcer bleed or perforation; black symbols, death attributable to a bleeding or perforated ulcer. Several trials reported several levels of harm; that is, several events. Death outcomes in two RCTs had a control event rate of 0%; these were set a control event rate of 0.001% for graphical purposes. Dotted line, the line of equality. From  with permission.
Andrew Moore Arthritis Research & Therapy 2013 15(Suppl 3):S4 doi:10.1186/ar4176