In vitro osteogenic differentiation of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis induced pluripotent stem cells. To induce osteogenic differentiation, rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were cultured in E8 medium or osteogenic differentiation medium (ODM) for 7 days. Osteogenic differentiation was determined by the fluorescence detection for mineralization. Osteogenic mineralization was detected in both ODM-treated RA iPSCs (A) and OA iPSCs (B) by fluorescence microscope (fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)).
Lee et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2014 16:R41 doi:10.1186/ar4470