Graph showing three risk factors for Pneumocystis pneumonia. Logistic regression analysis identified three risk factors: age at least 65 years (hazard ratio (HR) = 4.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04 to 18.2), coexisting pulmonary disease (HR = 8.13, 95% CI = 1.63 to 40.0) and the use of glucocorticoids (HR = 11.4, 95% CI = 1.38 to 90.9). The Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) score (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR)) and the duration of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were not risk factors for Pneumocystis pneumonia.
Katsuyama et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2014 16:R43 doi:10.1186/ar4472