Figure 3.

Potential and established approaches for modulation of monocyte/macrophage (Mφ) functions in rheumatoid arthritis. COX-2, cyclooxygenase-2; EC, endothelial cells; FB, fibroblasts; ICAM-1, intracellular adhesion molecule-1; IFN-β, interferon-beta; IL, interleukin; IL-1RA, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist; iNOS, inducible nitric-oxide synthase; mAbs, mononuclear antibodies; cPLA2, cytosolic phospholipase A2; MMP, metalloprotease; MTX, methotrexate; NF-κB, nuclear factor-kappa-B; PGE2, prostaglandin E2; PPAR-γ, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma; ROS, reactive oxygen species; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Reproduced with permission from Kinne RW, Stuhlmuller B, Palombo-Kinne E, Burmester GR: The role of macrophages in rheumatoid arthritis. In Rheumatoid Arthritis. Edited by Firestein GS, Panayi GS, Wollheim FA. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006:55–75 [2].

Kinne et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2007 9:224   doi:10.1186/ar2333
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