Effects of endothelin include stimulating myofibroblast formation, leading to a concomitant increase in collagen production and fibrosis. Binding of endothelin (ET)-1 to ET-1 receptor subtype A (ETA) and ETB has different effects in different cell types. The binding of ET-1 to smooth muscle cell ETA and ETB receptors leads to vasoconstriction and mitogenesis, and activation of ETB receptors on endothelial cells promotes the release of nitric oxide and prostacyclin, and plays a minor role in endothelial dependent vasodilatation. In fibroblasts ET-1 results in the increased production of collagen and leads to fibrosis. Reproduced with permission from Galiè et al. Cardiovascular Research © Elsevier 2004 .
Krieg et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2007 9(Suppl 2):S4 doi:10.1186/ar2188