TGF-β plays a pivotal role in the induction of ET-1. (a) Stellate (top panel) and sinusoidal endothelial (bottom panel) cells were isolated from normal rat livers or those injured by bile duct ligation (BDL). Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 was applied at the indicated concentration in serum-free medium for 24 hours. Endothelin (ET)-1 was measured by radioimmunoassay. *P < 0.05 versus no TGF-β1 (n = 5). (b) Stellate and endothelial cells were isolated from normal rat livers, and those after BDL and those after soluble TGF-β1 receptor (STR) antagonist during BDL (BDL + STR). *P < 0.05 versus normal and *P < 0.05 versus BDL (n = 8). Reproduced with permission from Shao et al. Mol Biol Cell 2003 © The American Society for Cell Biology .
Krieg et al. Arthritis Research & Therapy 2007 9(Suppl 2):S4 doi:10.1186/ar2188